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5.1 - Materials


5.101 General Information 

5.102 Inspection 

5.103 Mill, Factory and Field Testing Materials
A. Laboratory Testing
B. Certified Mill Tests
C. Visual Inspection 

5.104 Clay Pipe 

5.105 Concrete Pipe (Circular and Elliptical)
A. Non-reinforced Concrete
B. Reinforced Circular Concrete
C. Reinforced Elliptical Concrete 

5.106 Cast Iron Pipe
A. Form and Conditions
B. Weight of Special Castings
C. Application of Coating 

5.107 Ductile Iron Pipe
A. Form and Conditions
B. Application of Coating 

5.108 Aluminized Steel Pipe 

5.109 Corrugated Metal Pipe 

5.110 (ABS) Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene 

5.111 ABS Composite Wall Pipe 

5.112 Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Pipe 

5.113 Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic Mortar Pipe 

5.114 Jointing Materials
A. Clay Pipe
B. Concrete Pipe
C. ABS Solid Wall Pipe
D. ABS Composite Pipe
E. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Pipe
F. PVC Composite Wall Pipe
G. Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic Mortar Pipe
H. Cast Iron and Ductile Iron
I. Aluminized Steel Pipe 

5.115 Castings 

5.116 Manhole Steps
A. General Information
B. Ductile Iron Steps
C. Plastic-Steel Manhole Steps 

5.117 Concrete and Masonry
A. Precast Manholes
B. Portland Cement
C. Water
D. Fine Aggregates
E. Mortar Sand
F. Coarse Aggregate 

5.118 Brick
A. Shale Sewer Brick
B. Concrete Brick 

5.119 Reinforcing Steel 

5.120 Structural Steel 

5.121 Steel Electrodes 

5.122 Lumber
A. Grillage
B. Timber Piles 



5.101 GENERAL INFORMATION

Unless otherwise specified, all materials used in the work under these Regulations shall conform to the requirements of the latest revision of the applicable specifications of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), and shall be tested in accordance with the latest specifications or methods of testing that have been adopted, revised or proposed for such materials. It is further understood and agreed that wherever reference is made to the specifications and/or methods of testing adopted by the American Society for Testing and Materials, American Concrete Institute, American National Standards Institute, American Water Works Association, American Welding Society, Ohio Department of Transportation, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, City of Cleveland Water Department, or other organization or department, it shall refer to the standards of that society or organization, bearing the latest date.

On private work outside of the public right-of-way and in easements, when conflicts arise on the type of materials to be specified for usage in a project, the responsibility will be with the municipal engineer. 


5.102 INSPECTION

No material shall be used in the work until it has been inspected and approved on the site of the work. When required by the responsible agency, any or all materials entering into the construction of any work under this contract shall be tested by a reputable local testing laboratory. Such inspection shall not relieve the contractor of any obligations in this respect, and any defective material or workmanship shall be at all times liable to rejection when discovered, until the final completion and adjustment of the contract. 


5.103 MILL, FACTORY AND FIELD TESTING MATERIALS

All materials to be incorporated in the work of this contract shall be tested or inspected in accordance with the following schedule. Sampling, testing and inspection shall be made in accordance with the latest applicable ASTM standards.

A. Laboratory Testing
The following materials shall be inspected and tested at the expense of the responsible agency, by a local bureau, laboratory or other agency selected by the engineer, and the contractor shall furnish all such samples of materials as may be required, and such materials shall be approved before permission is given to incorporate same in the work. It is the responsibility of the contractor to arrange for laboratory testing and the cost of such samples shall be included in the unit prices bid for the various items of work. The requirements for each item to be tested shall be as follows:
  1. Cement
    a) Containers shall bear the name of the manufacturer.
    b) The testing laboratories shall provide certificates of test of samples for 7 day and 28 day compressive strength, soundness, time of setting and fineness, for each carload shipped.
  2. Sand
    a) Color test for organic matter.
    b) Decantation test for silt.
    c) Sieve analysis.
  3. Brick
    a) Shale sewer brick shall be tested for the requirements of Section 5.119A of these Specifications.
    b) Concrete sewer brick shall be tested according to Section 5.119B of these Specifications.
  4. Concrete Masonry Units
    a) Compressive Strength Test.
    b) Absorption Test.
  5. Stone
    a) Sieve Analysis and Visual Inspection.
    b) Abrasion.
    c) Absorption.
  6. Concrete (Concrete test not required for small projects such as house or building connections.) For each separate pour:
    a) Slump Test.
    b) Three compression (cylinder) tests made at two different times.
  7. Sanitary and Storm Sewer Pipe
    Furnish one pipe section for each diameter of a given strength class for each 2,000 feet or fraction thereof to be supplied on each individual project.

    a) Clay, Plain Concrete and Reinforced Concrete Pipe - 3 Edge Bearing Test

    1. Clay pipe strength as required by ASTM C-700ES.
    2. Plain concrete pipe strength as required by C-14.
    3. Reinforced concrete strength as required by C-76.

    Test loading for reinforced concrete pipe shall be increased to a magnitude of 115% of that which the pipe must support without developing a 0.01 inch crack as defined in ASTM Specification C-497, "Determining Physical Properties of Concrete Pipe or Tile." If a 0.01 inch crack has not been developed by this increased loading, the crushing load shall be removed, the test terminated and the test section plus all the pipe it represents shall be considered to have passed the 3 Edge Bearing Test requirements. Should a 0.01 inch crack develop in the pipe surface at or prior to the attainment of the 115% load, the pipe shall be tested to ultimate strength.

    b) Concrete Pipe
    When concrete pipe manufactured at a plant that has been previously approved by a responsible agency has once been tested and approved for a specific size and design in accordance with the above procedure, any responsible agency may accept similar concrete pipe on the basis of one of the following:

    1. Plant certification that the pipe and joints meet the project specifications.
    2. Accepting results of the three edge bearing tests previously completed.
    3. Core sampling. Such cores can be used to verify wall thickness, steel areas, absorption and concrete compressive strength.

    c) Flexible Pipe - Strength, flattening, stiffness and deflection in accordance with ASTM D-2412.

    1. ABS Solid Wall Pipe as required by ASTM D-2751, (SDR35) to acceptance values given therein.
    2. ABS and PVC Composite Wall Pipe as required by ASTM D-2680 to acceptance values given therein.
    3. Polyvinyl Chloride Pipe (PVC) - All polyvinyl chloride pipe shall conform to the requirements specified in the latest Standard Specifications for Polyvinyl Chloride Pipes, ASTM Designation D-3034; ASTM D-2241, ASTM D-3139, ASTM F- 949, ASTM F-794, ASTM F-679, ASTM F-789, AASHTO M-304. All pipes and fittings shall be marked or stenciled with the appropriate classification.

    d) Aluminized steel type 2 pipe (where acceptable) per ASTM A-760 Type 2, ASTM A-819, AASHTO M-274.

    e) Reinforced plastic mortar pipe as requied by ASTM D-3262.

    f) Acceptance Tests for Iron Pipe.

    1. Ductile Iron Pipe tensile and impact tested as required in ANSI A 21.51 to acceptance values listed therein.
    2. Cast-Iron pipe modules of rupture and secant modules of elasticity tested as required in ANSI A 21.6 or A 21.8 to accepted values listed therein.
     
  8. Welding
    Shop and field tests shall be made on the work of welding operations according to the American Welding Society's "Standard Qualification Procedure".
  9. Miscellaneous
    All other material and testing procedures which the responsible agency may determine to be necessary.

B. Certified Mill Tests
Certificates of tests at mill by manufacturer shall be furnished for the following materials:

  1. Cast Iron Pipe, Fittings and other Castings:
    Furnish certificates of tests by foundry under ANSI, AWWA, or Federal Specifications. Make, weight, and year to be stenciled or cast on all pipe, fittings and castings.
  2. Structural Steel, Reinforcing Steel and Genuine Ductile Iron and Corrugated Metal: Furnish certified mill tests of steels and ductile irons.
  3. All other material which the responsible agency may determine to be necessary.

C. Visual Inspection
All material and all equipment shall be subject to visual inspection and acceptance or rejection after delivery to the site of the work. All rejected materials shall immediately be removed from the site. All pipes shall be stamped bearing manufacture's name, date, type of pipe (class if concrete), and applicable ASTM and/or AASHTO numbers. 


5.104 CLAY PIPE

All clay sewer pipe shall conform to the requirements stipulated in the "Standard Specifications for Clay Sewer Pipe", ASTM Designation C-700 ES, as may be specifically identified on the plans or further specified. All clay pipe service laterals shall conform to ASTM Designation C-700 ES. 


5.105 CONCRETE PIPE (Circular and Elliptical)

A. Non-reinforced Concrete
All non-reinforced concrete sewer pipe furnished under these Specifications shall conform to all the requirements of Class 3 pipe in "Concrete Sewer, Storm Drain, and Culvert Pipe", ASTM Designation C-14. Sanitary sewer pipes shall be manufactured utilizing Type II cement only.

B. Reinforced Circular Concrete
All reinforced circular concrete sewer pipe furnished under these Specifications shall conform to all the requirements of "Reinforced Concrete Culvert, Storm Drain, and Sewer Pipe", ASTM Designation C-76. Where designs for a given size and strength class of pipe are provided for under the provisions of the ODOT Specifications, such designs shall be permitted subject to the testing requirements of Section 5.103 as it applies to circular reinforced concrete pipe. Sanitary sewer pipes shall be manufactured utilizing Type II cement only.

C. Reinforced Elliptical Concrete
All reinforced elliptical concrete sewer pipe furnished under these Specifications shall conform to all the requirements of "Reinforced Concrete Elliptical Culvert, Storm Drain, and Sewer Pipe", ASTM Designation C-507. Where designs for a given size and strength class of pipe are provided for under provisions of the ODOT Specifications, such designs shall be permitted subject to the test requirements of Section 5.103 as it applies to reinforced elliptical concrete pipe. 


5.106 CAST IRON PIPE

A. Form and Conditions
All cast iron pipe and special castings shall be of superior quality of iron, tough and even grain, free from cracks, sand, holes or defects of any nature. Cast iron pipe shown on the plans and bid blanks as Thickness Class "22", cement lined, shall conform to the "Specifications for Cast Iron Pipe, for Water and Other Liquids". ANSI A-21.6 or A-21.8. Every length of pipe delivered to the site shall have been previously tested and withstood the minimum hydraulic pressure required by the specifications under which it is furnished. All cast iron pipe and special castings used in pipe extensions must be numbered and inspected, said inspection to be made by an inspector from the responsible agency.

B. Weight of Special Castings
No special castings shall be accepted, the weight of which shall be less than American Water Works Association, Class "D", standard weight, by more than ten percent (10%).

C. Application of Coating
All pipe and special castings shall be thoroughly cleaned and, except for cement-mortar lined pipe, shall be coated inside and outside with an approved asphaltum or other approved impervious preparation in accordance with ANSI A-21.4 applied at a temperature of 300°F. Pipe shall be handled in such a manner that a minimum amount of damage to the coating will result. All cast iron pipe or fittings, the coating of which has been damaged in shipping or handling, shall have the damaged portion well cleaned and coated as above specified before being placed in the work. The contractor shall thoroughly coat all exposed parts of nuts and bolts, as above specified, after the pipe has been placed and before backfilling has been placed. All field coating shall be furnished by the contractor and approved by the responsible agency. All cement-mortar lining for cast iron and ductile iron pipe and fittings shall be installed in conformance with ANSI A-21.4. 


5.107 DUCTILE IRON PIPE

A. Form and Conditions
All ductile iron pipe and special castings shall be of superior quality of iron, tough and even grain, free from cracks, sand, holes or defects of any nature.

Ductile iron pipe shown on the plans and bid blanks as cement lined Thickness Class "52" shall conform to the Specifications for Ductile Iron Pipe, for Water and Other Liquids, ANSI A-21.51. Every length of pipe delivered to the site shall have been previously tested and withstood the minimum hydraulic pressure required by the specifications under which it is furnished. All ductile iron pipe and special castings used in pipe extensions must be numbered and inspected, said inspection to be made by an inspector from the responsible agency.

B. Application of Coating
All pipe and special castings shall be thoroughly cleaned, and except for cement-mortar lined pipe, shall be coated inside and outside with an approved asphaltum or other approved impervious preparation applied at a temperature of 300°F. Pipe shall be handled in such a manner that a minimum amount of damage to the coating will result. All ductile iron pipe or fittings, the coating of which has been damaged in shipping or handling, shall have the damaged portion well cleaned and recoated as above specified before being placed in the work. The contractor shall thoroughly coat all exposed parts of nuts and bolts, as above specified, after the pipe has been placed and before backfilling has been placed. All field coating shall be furnished and applied by the contractor and approved by the responsible agency. 


5.108 ALUMINIZED STEEL PIPE

Where installation is applicable and accepted, aluminized steel Type 2 pipe shall conform to ASTM A-760 and ASTM A-819, AASHTO M-274 for materials, ASTM A-796 for design, and ASTM A-798 for installation. 


5.109 CORRUGATED METAL PIPE

Where installation is applicable and accepted, all corrugated metal pipe shall be galvanized and shall conform to the requirements of the latest specifications for corrugated metal pipe adopted in the ODOT Specifications. The thickness of the base metal shall be shown on the plans. When specified or called for on the plans, a bituminous paved invert and/or bituminous coating or a smooth bituminous lining applied centrifugally shall be applied to the pipe after fabrication. Corrugated metal pipe is to be used only in special projects upon approval of the Municipal Engineer and other appropriate agencies. 


5.110 ACRYLONITRILE-BUTADIENE-STYPENE (ABS) SOLID WALL PIPE

All ABS solid wall pipe shall conform to the requirements specified in the latest Standard Specifications for ABS Solid Wall Pipe and Fittings, ASTM Designation D-2751. All pipe and fittings shall be marked or stenciled with the appropriate classification. 


5.111 ACRYLONITRILE (ABS) AND POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) COMPOSITE WALL PIPE

All ABS composite pipe shall conform to the requirements specified in the latest Standard Specifications for ABS and PVC Composite Sewer Piping, ASTM Designation D-2680. Exposed ends of all pipe and fittings shall be sealed with a thick application of solvent cement. All pipe and fittings shall be marked or stenciled with the appropriate classification. 


5.112 POLYVINYL CHLORIDE PIPE (PVC)

All polyvinyl chloride pipe shall conform to the requirements specified in the latest Standard Specifications for Polyvinyl Chloride Pipes, ASTM Designation D-3034; ASTM D-2241, ASTM D-3139, ASTM F-949, ASTM F-794, ASTM F-679, ASTM F-789, AASHTO M-304. All pipes and fittings shall be marked or stenciled with the appropriate classification. 


5.113 FIBERGLASS REINFORCED PLASTIC MORTAR PIPE

All reinforced plastic mortar pipe shall conform to the requirements specified in the latest Standard Specifications of ASTM D-3262. 


5.114 JOINTING MATERIALS

Joint materials for all classifications of pipe shall be the same between any consecutive manholes.

A. For Clay Pipe
Clay pipe for sanitary sewers and storm sewers installations shall be provided with compression joints meeting all performance requirements of ASTM Standard C-425.

B. For Concrete Pipe

  1. Sanitary and Storm Sewers
    Concrete pipe joints for sanitary sewers shall conform to the requirements of ASTM C-361 as it pertains to the use of a confined gasket. For storm sewer, ASTM C-443 is acceptable. All joints shall consist of confined approved gaskets placed in grooves in the spigots of the pipe such that the gaskets will be enclosed on all sides when the pipe is laid and the joints are completed.

    All elliptical reinforced concrete pipe for sanitary and storm sewers shall have Butyl rubber type joints unless otherwise specified.

C. Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Solid Wall Pipe
All ABS Solid Wall Pipe joints shall be of the "0" ring or Solvent Cement type per ASTM 2680.

D. Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Composite Wall Pipe
All ABS Composite Wall Pipe Joints shall be of the "0" ring or Solvent Cement type per ASTM 2680, if the joint is of the solvent type, it shall be installed per ASTM D-2235 and the manufacturer's recommendations. Additionally, all exposed ends of the ABS Composite Pipe shall be fully sealed with a thick application of solvent cement.

E. For Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Pipe
PVC pipe joints shall be integral with the body of the pipe, belled as illustrated in ASTM D- 3034 and shall utilize "0" ring gaskets meeting requirements of ASTM D-3212. Gaskets shall conform to ASTM F-477.

F. For Polyvinyl Chloride Composite (PVC) Wall Pipe
All PVC Composite Wall Pipe Joints shall be of the "0" ring or solvent cement type per ASTM D-2680. If the joint is of the solvent cement type, it shall be installed per ASTM D-3564 and the manufacturer's recommendations. Additionally, all exposed ends of the PVC Composite Pipe shall be fully sealed with a thick application of solvent cement.

G. Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic Mortar Pipe
Coupling joints shall meet the requirements os ASTM D-4161.

H. Cast Iron and Ductile Pipe
Joints shall be rubber slip joints, comparable to the following: "Tyton" Joint, as manufactured by the U.S. Pipe and Foundry Company; "Pastite" Joint, as manufactured by American Iron Pipe or "Bell-Tite", as manufactured by James B. Clow and Sons, Inc.

I. Aluminized Steel Pipe (where applicable and approved)
Joints for aluminized steel pipe shall conform to the requirements of ASTM A-798 specifications. 


5.115 CASTINGS

Castings for manholes, inlets and catch basins furnished under these Specifications shall conform in design to the standard plans on file in the office of the responsible agency Engineer. All casting shall be true to pattern and free from cracks, gas holes, flaws and excessive shrinkage. Surfaces shall be free from burnt-on sand and shall be reasonably smooth. Runners, fins, risers and other cast-on pieces shall be removed.

Cast iron manhole and catch basin frames, covers and for any other purpose under these Specifications, except as otherwise provided, shall conform to all the requirements of Class No. 30 for Gray Iron Castings of the ASTM Designation A-48.

All castings shall be commercially machineable and, in the case of manholes and catch basins, the frame and cover shall, if necessary, be so machined that it will be impossible to rock the cover after it has been seated in the proper position in the frame. 


5.116 MANHOLE STEPS

A. General Information
All steps shall be minimum of 12 inches in width with safety side lugs to prevent slipping and shall conform to the latest OSHA requirements.

B. Ductile Iron Steps
They shall be true to pattern and surfaces shall be free from cracks, flaws, fins, and burnt-on sand, and shall be reasonably smooth. They shall be coated with an approved asphaltum or other impervious preparation. The ductile iron shall conform to all of the requirements of Grade 65-45-12, ASTM Designation A-536.

C. Plastic-Steel Manhole Steps
The plastic used shall be a Co-Polymer Polypropylene and shall conform to the requirements of ASTM D-4101-95. The steel shall conform to ASTM A-496, D-20 or ASTM A615 Grade 60. The steel shall be epoxy-coated per ASTM A-934 or be galvanized. All steps shall conform to ASTM C-478-94 paragraph 13 with safety side legs to prevent slipping and shall conform to the latest OSHA requirements. 


5.117 CONCRETE AND MASONRY

A. Precast Manholes
All precast concrete manhole sections furnished under these Specifications shall conform to all the requirements of "Precast Reinforced Concrete Manhole Sections", ASTM Designation C-478. All joints shall also be sealed externally with a trowelable mastic compound such as Fabertite, Kent Seal or equal. Precast manhole "tee" sections where used on sewers 48 inches in diameter and larger shall conform in design to the Uniform Standard Sewer Details of the responsible agency.

Approved water-stop gaskets shall be utilized when plastic pipe connections are made into a masonry or precast structure.

B. Portland Cement
All cement used in the work shall be of an approved brand and shall meet the requirements of the following ASTM Designation:

Standard Portland Cement  C-150 Type I
* Standard Portland Cement w/air entraining admixture: C-150 Type I
High Early Strength Portland Cement C-150 Type III
* High Early Strength Portland Cement w/air entraining admixture: C-150 Type III
* Air entraining admixture shall conform to AASHO, M-154 added at mixer.  

Cement for job-mixed concrete shall be furnished in unbroken 94 pound bags marked with the brand of the manufacturer, showing no signs of damage from moisture such as the formation of cakes or lumps, or of damage of any other character.

C. Water
All water required in the execution of the contract must be provided by the Contractor. It shall be free form organic matter, acids and strong alkalis and shall be of potable quality. Water may be obtained from fire hydrants of the municipality wherever available, after obtaining a permit for such services. Cost of water shall be included in the unit prices bid for the various items of work unless otherwise designated by the responsible agency.

D. Fine Aggregates
The fine aggregates shall consist of natural or manufactured sand composed of clean, strong, hard, durable, uncoated particles of stone. It shall be well graded from coarse to fine and shall be free from lumps of clay, shale, loam, soft and flaky particles, and all organic matter. The sand shall conform to the following grading:

SIEVE NO.
(U.S. STANDARD SIEVE SERIES) 
TOTAL PERCENT BY
WEIGHT PASSING
3/8" 100
No. 4 95-100
No. 8 70-95
No. 16 45-80
No. 30 25-60
No. 50 10-30
No. 100 1-10
No. 200 0-4

In the event that the sand does not pass the minimum requirements for the No. 50 and/or the No. 100 sieves, the deficiency may be corrected by the addition of approved fine inorganic material.

The amount of such material to be added shall be determined by a laboratory designated by the responsible agency engineer.

The gradation of the sand from any one source shall be reasonably uniform and not subject to extreme variations within the above specified limits. Sand from any one source exhibiting a variation in fineness modules of more than 0.20 may be rejected.

In addition to the grading requirements, the fine aggregate shall pass the color test for organic matter, soundness test and the compressive tests of cement sand mortar, all as per the latest ASTM specifications.

E. Mortar Sand
With the exception of grading, the specifications for the fine aggregate shall govern. Grading shall be as follows:

SIEVE NO.
(U.S. STANDARD SIEVE SERIES) 
TOTAL PERCENT BY
WEIGHT PASSING
No. 4 100
No. 8 90-100
No. 50 15-40
No. 100 0-10
No. 200 0-5

F. Coarse Aggregates
The coarse aggregate shall consist of clean, strong, hard, durable, uncoated particles of crushed limestone, or crushed granite. It shall be reasonably uniform in density and free from an excess of thin, elongated or laminated pieces and also free from organic material.

Recycled concrete on public right-of-way projects is not allowed. It can be used on private property with the approval of the municipal engineer.

The amounts of deleterious substances contained in the aggregate shall not exceed the following limits:

  Percent by Weight 
Dust (Passing No. 200 Sieve) 1.0
Shale 1.0
Coal 1.0
Clay Lumps 0.25
Soft Fragments 3.0
Miscellaneous Substances such as Chert Alkali, Friable Laminated Pieces 1.0

If the material passing the No. 200 sieve consists of the dust of fracture, and is free from shale or clay particles, the allowable amount may be increased to 1.5%.

The coarse aggregate shall conform to the appropriate AASHTO M-43 grading.

Light weight aggregates will not be permitted and all coarse aggregates shall weigh at least 65 pounds per cubic foot.

All coarse aggregates shall meet the ASTM specifications in regard to soundness and abrasion losses. 


5.118 BRICK

A. Shale Sewer Brick
All sewer brick shall be made from shale sewer brick and shall be smooth, sound, hard, tough, and thoroughly vitrified. They shall be true in form with straight sharp edges and flat surfaces, and shall be uniform in quality, cross section and dimensions. Shale sewer brick furnished or used under these Specifications shall comply with all the requirements for Grade S.S., ASTM C-32 so far as the same may apply and are not in conflict with these Specifications.

Sewer brick shall be one or more of the following designated sizes:

DEPTH  WIDTH LENGTH
1 1/2" 4" 8 1/2"
3" 4" 8 1/2"
3 1/2" 4" 8 1/2"
Not more than two percent (2%) of the brick shall vary more than one-eighth inch (1/8") in depth or width, or one-quarter inch (1/4") in length from the specified dimensions. 

Lugged brick, cored brick or brick having recessed or openings extending through or partially through the body of the brick in any direction will not be accepted under these Specifications.

All shale brick furnished or used under these Specifications shall comply with the following physical test requirements:

ABSORPTION LIMIT (5 Hour Boiling) 
Mean of five (5) tests Not to exceed 6%
Individual Maximum Not to exceed 9%
Minimum Compressive Strength (lbs. per sq. inch) 
Mean of five (5) tests 8000
Individual Minimum 6000

B. Concrete Brick
Brick used in storm sewers, catch basins, inlet basins, storm manholes and storm junction chambers may be concrete sewer brick conforming to ASTM Designation C-55, Type I, Grade S-1. 


5.119 REINFORCING STEEL

Reinforcing steel shall conform to the "Standard Specifications for Billet Steel or Rail Steel Reinforcement Bars" of the American Society for Testing and Materials, ASTM A-615 or ASTM A-616. Bars shall be round as indicated on the drawings, and shall be of the deformed type. Bars shall be of new stock and free from scale, rust, oil, paint or coating of any kind, except epoxy coatings as specifically called for. Deformations shall conform to ASTM Designation A-305. Welded wire fabric shall conform to the latest ASTM Specification A-185. 


5.120 STRUCTURAL STEEL

All structural steel shall meet the requirements of the "Standard Specifications for Steel Bridges and Buildings", ASTM Designation A-36. 


5.121 STEEL ELECTRODES

Steel electrodes shall conform to all requirements of the latest "Standard Specifications of Steel Electrodes", ASTM Designation A-233. 


5.122 LUMBER

Lumber for sheeting, sheet piling, forms, bracing or bridging must be of good quality and of sizes and strength suitable for protecting the work and workers from danger, and for securing the best possible condition for construction. Any material deemed unsuitable or unsafe by the responsible agency must be removed at once from the work.

A. Grillage
Lumber for grillage under the foundation of the sewer shall be of oak, southern yellow pine or douglas fir. Other species must be approved by the engineer. The material for grillage shall conform to the following specifications and grades:
  1. Oak: 1700# f grade for wales and bridge plank grade for flooring based on the specifications by the National Hardwood Lumber Association.
  2. Southern Yellow Pine: Structural square edge and sound longleaf P. & T. or dense structural square edge and sound shortleaf P. & T. grades for wales, and No. 1 structural longleaf J. & P. or dense No. 1 structural shortleaf J. & P. grades for flooring based on the specifications by the Southern Pine Association.
  3. Douglas Fir: Select structural B. & S. or dense construction B. & S. grades for wales, and select structural J. & P. or dense construction J. & P. grades for flooring based on the specifications by the West Coast Lumberman's Association.

B. Timber Piles
Piles shall be of red oak, white oak, cypress, southern yellow pine or douglas fir. Other species must be approved by the responsible agency engineer. All piles shall be sound, solid and contain no unsound knots. Sound knots will be permitted provided they do not exceed one-third (1/3) of the minimum diameter of the pile at that particular section and are not over four inches (4") in diameter. Any defects or combination of defects, which would be more injurious than the maximum allowable, will not be permitted. Piles shall have a uniform taper and be free from short kinks. A reasonable amount of ground swell will be permitted but shall not extend more than three feet (3') from the butt or be considered in measuring diameters.