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5.2 - Construction


5.201 Site Work 
A. Maintaining Sewage Flow
B. Replacing, Moving and Repairing of Existing Structures
C. Removal of Existing Sewers and Appurtenances
D. Restoration of Pavement, Curbing, Concrete Gutters, Driveways, Sidewalks, Retaining Walls, Headwalls, Piers and Abutments
E. Removal of Trees
F. Dust Control 

5.202 Excavating
A. Test Pits
B. Alignment and Grade
C. Excavation and Preparation of Trench
D. Blasting
E. Tunnel
F. Sewers Within Jacked or Bored Casing Pipe
G. Jacked or Bored or Tunneled Service Connections
H. Bracing and Sheeting of Excavation
I. Drainage
J. Paved Surfaces
K. Excavation by Machine or by Hand
L. Barricades, Guards and Safety Provisions 

5.203 Pipe Installation
A. General Information
B. Construction 

5.204 Pipe Joints
A. General Information
B. Joints for Clay Pipe
C. Joints for Concrete Pipe
D. Joints for ABS Solid Wall Pipe
E. Joints for ABS Composite Wall Pipe
F. Joints for Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Pipe
G. Joints for Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Wall Pipe
H. Joints for Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic Mortar Pipe
I. Joints for Cast Iron and Ductile Iron Pipe
J. Joints for Aluminized Steel Pipe 

5.205 Backfilling
A. Extent of Backfill
B. Backfill Material
C. Premium Backfill
D. Additional Premium Backfill 

5.206 Disposal of Surplus Excavated Material 

5.207 Branch Connections and Risers 

5.208 Lateral Connections 

5.209 Manholes
A. Drop Manholes
B. Inlets and Catch Basins
C. Bulkheads 

5.210 Concrete and Masonry
A. Frost and Dampness Protection of Masonry
B. Mortar
C. Concrete
D. Mixing and Placing Concrete
E. Concrete Forms and Construction Details 

5.211 Inspection and Testing
A. Service Markings
B. Line Acceptance Tests for Sewers
C. Leakage Tests for Force Mains 

5.212 Fabrication and Erection of Steel
A. Structural Steel
B. Reinforcing Steel 

5.213 Welding 

5.214 Miscellaneous
A. Clean-up, Repairs, Seeding and Sodding
B. Measurements for Payment 



5.201 SITE WORK

A. Maintaining Sewage Flow
The contractor shall be required to bypass and maintain the flow in all existing live sanitary and storm sewers during construction and the method employed shall be approved by the responsible agency. The full cost of bypassing and maintaining sewage flow shall be included in the prices bid for other items of work and no additional compensation will be allowed therefore.

B. Replacing, Moving and Repairing of Existing Structures
The contractor shall be responsible for the replacement, movement or repair and maintenance of all sewers, drains, catch basins, manholes, culverts, water lines, steam lines, air or gas lines, wire conduit(s) and any other appurtenances or structures encountered in the performance of said work, together in conjunction with all house connections whether or not they are shown on the plans.

Written permission from the owner must be obtained prior to initiating any construction on privately owned lines, equipment or appurtenances.

The contractor shall have the responsibility to replace, move or repair and maintain all pipes for water, steam, air or gas, and all wire conduit(s), and all other structures encountered in the work and repair of all damage done to any of the said structures through acts or negligence and shall keep them in repair during the life of this contract.

The contractor shall, in all cases, restore all existing utilities and structures to the full satisfaction of the responsible agency engineer.

The full cost of replacing, moving or repairing all damage done to any of the said structures encountered in excavation, including continuously along the trench, shall be included in the unit prices bid for other items of work and no additional compensation will be allowed therefore, whether or not shown on the plans.

C. Removal of Existing Sewers and Appurtenances
Where required to clear the new construction, or when shown on the plans, existing sewers, manholes, catch basins and other appurtenances shall be removed by the contractor. All abandoned sewers, when required by the municipal engineer, shall be filled with sand or flowable materials such as durofill and bulkheaded with brick masonry bulkheads at all points where they are cut. Manholes shall be demolished five (5) feet below grade and filled with suitable materials approved by the engineer. Any materials removed in the progress of the work which are deemed to be salvageable, shall be removed to storage points designated by the engineer and shall remain the property of the responsible agency. The contractor shall use reasonable care in removing such items to prevent breakage and shall include the entire cost of sandfilling, bulkheading and removal of existing sewers and appurtenances in the unit prices bid for sewers in place.

D. Restoration of Pavement, Curbing, Concrete Gutters, Driveways, Sidewalks, Retaining Walls, Headwalls, Piers and Abutments
All pavements, road surfaces, curbing, concrete gutters, driveways, driveway culvert pipes, sidewalks, retaining walls, piers, headwalls, abutments, fencing and mailboxes removed or damaged during the course of the work shall be replaced by the contractor. All such items shall be replaced in the same manner, and be at least of equal quality and dimensions as existed before the commencement of the work. All such replacement shall be performed as soon as practicable. The full cost of such work shall be included in the unit prices bid for sewers in place. All replacement work done on County, Municipal or State roads shall be approved by the appropriate agency or agencies.

E. Removal of Trees
Only those trees which are directly in the line of excavation, or those which are designated for removal by the responsible agency, shall be removed to a depth of six (6) inches below the finished grade. The entire cost of removing all sizes of trees shall be included in the prices bid for other items of work and no additional compensation will be allowed therefore, unless otherwise specified.

F. Dust Control
The contractor shall keep the entire construction site reasonably clean and clear of excessive dust. The contractor shall immediately control the dust or apply dust control chemicals in the affected area to the full satisfaction of the responsible agency.

The full cost of this work shall be included in the unit prices bid for other items of work, and no additional compensation will be allowed therefore. 


5.202 EXCAVATING

A. Test Pits
The contractor shall dig such exploratory test pits as necessary, in advance of excavation operations, to determine the exact location of subsurface pipe lines, conduits and structures which are likely to be encountered, and shall make acceptable provision for their protection, support and maintenance in operation. The cost of such work shall be included in the unit prices bid for sewers in place.

B. Alignment and Grade
Alignment and grade shall be established by means of grade bars or a laser beam.
  1. Laser Beam
    The contractor shall furnish all material and labor to establish line and grade of the generated laser beam from the benchmarks and control points indicated on the plans. The end of laterals and all "Y" branches shall be staked and maximum place of hubs shall be fifty (50) feet. All manholes and inlet basins shall be set to grade by the contractor. The final inspection approval and acceptance of the sewer system shall be contingent upon the final adjustment of the castings. At final grade, the surface of the ground shall slope away from the manhole covers. The laser shall be securely anchored and checked at least twice daily to insure that OSHA Regulations are met. Strict adherence to the manufacturer's operation procedure shall be observed. Only qualified and trained employees may be assigned to install, adjust, or operate laser equipment, and proof of qualifications of the equipment operator must be available at all times. Areas in which lasers are used, must be posted with standard laser warning placards and the laser beam shall be turned off when not needed. During rain, snow, dust, excessive heat or fog, the operation of laser systems shall be prohibited if beam scatter occurs.

    All horizontal and vertical control required for the complete layout and performance of the work under this Contract shall be done by the contractor at the contractor's expense, and any approvals by the responsible agency of the contractor's methods will not relieve the contractor of responsibility.
  2. Open Cut
    All sewers in open cut shall be laid and maintained to the required lines and grades.

    Unless otherwise specified, the responsible agency shall establish all base lines for the location of the principal component parts of the work together with a suitable number of benchmarks adjacent to the work. Based upon the information provided, the contractor shall employ and retain a Registered Surveyor to develop and make all detail surveys necessary for construction, including slope stake, cut stakes, batter boards, stakes for pile locations and other working points, lines and elevations. The contractor shall have the responsibility to carefully preserve benchmarks, reference points and stakes, and in case of the destruction thereof, the contractor shall be charged with the expense and damage resulting therefrom and shall be responsible for any mistakes that may be caused by the loss or disturbance of such benchmarks, reference points and stakes. The contractor shall notify the responsible agency at least 72 hours prior to starting survey work to establish line and grade.
  3. Tunnel
    In tunnel construction, the contractor shall furnish all labor and equipment required to transfer line and grade from the benchmarks and control points at ground level indicated on the plans into the tunnel section at each shaft. The method employed by the contractor shall be approved by the responsible agency. The control of vertical and horizontal alignment in the tunnel sections shall be accomplished by the use of a laser beam instrument, unless another method is approved in writing by the engineer.

    Prior to submitting the estimate for payment, the contractor shall submit for review by the engineer a plan and profile of all work performed during the preceding month. The plan and profile shall indicate thereon the survey indication of adherence to the design alignment and grade, as well as conformity to the requirements of these Specifications. The survey notes and drawings to be submitted shall be certified and stamped by a Registered Surveyor, licensed to practice in the State of Ohio. The surveyor shall be a specialist in tunnel work.

C. Excavation and Preparation of Trench

  1. General
    Unless otherwise provided, all excavation shall be unclassified and shall include the removal and disposal of all material encountered in excavation, including pavement surface, pavement base and other materials. It shall also include the placing and removal of the sheeting and bracing, and removing water encountered. All excavated materials shall be stored in convenient piles near the construction work sites or removed from the site unless otherwise specified.

    All excavation under existing or future pavements, driveways or sidewalks shall be backfilled with approved premium backfill. On roadways, premium backfill shall extend to four (4') feet beyond edge of pavement.
  2. Width
    The maximum width of unsheeted trench shall not exceed 12 inches on each side of the pipe for pipe diameters or spans of 24 inches or less, and not exceed 15 inches on each side of the pipe for diameters or spans greater than 24 inches and less than 72 inches, and not exceed 24 inches on each side of the pipe for pipe diameters or spans 72 inches and larger. The minimum width of unsheeted trench shall be at least nine (9) inches wider on each side than the outside diameter of pipe at the spring line.
  3. Bedding
    Type I. All pipe shall have a bedding of AASHTO M-43 No. 57, 6, 67, 68, 7, 78 or 8 aggregate extending the width of the trench excavation with depth in conformance with the construction drawings. When Type I bedding is used, the cost of all bedding, as described above, shall be included in the price bid for the various pipe items unless otherwise shown.

    Type II. Where shown on the drawings, pipe shall be bedded in a monolithic cradle of plain concrete having a minimum thickness below the bottom of the pipe of one-fourth (1/4) the vertical inside pipe diameter or rise but not less than six (6) inches extending up the sides for a height equal to one-fourth (1/4) the vertical outside diameter or rise. The cradle shall have a width at least equal to that of the excavated trench. 3000 psi concrete mix shall be used for the above bedding purposes. Care shall be taken so that the concrete strength does not exceed 3000 psi, unless a positive method of breaking bond between the pipe and the concrete is provided for.

    When sewer is not crossing a creek or any other body of water and the top of the pipe has less than three (3) feet of cover, it is recommended that the pipe be encased on both sides and top with minimum six (6) inches of 3,000# concrete. The pipe shall be bedded as specified in the drawings. The encasement of sewers shall be the decision of the design engineer.

    All space within the width of the trench excavation, inside or outside the authorized limits, shall be filled between the elevation limits with the same material as specified for the type of bedding to be used and as shown on the applicable standard drawings.

    When Type II bedding or capping of pipe is used, the cost of all bedding, as described above, shall be included in the price bid for the various pipe items.
  4. Pipe Cover
    Only coarse aggregate shall be used for filling above the pipe bedding along the sides of the sewer and to a height of 12 inches over the top of the sewers. For concrete, ductile and iron pipes, the minimum cover shall be to the spring line of the pipe. The pipe cover material shall be brought up evenly on both sides of the sewers and shall be thoroughly compacted by tamping or ramming. Care shall be taken to spade the aggregate under the pipe haunch below the spring line.
  5. Concrete Anchorage
    Concrete anchorages will be used when sewer slopes fall within the following limits, unless otherwise specified:

    20% to 35% slope - anchorage 36 feet center to center (maximum)
    35% to 50% slope - anchorage 24 feet center to center (maximum)
    Over 50% slope - anchorage 16 feet center to center (maximum).


    The cost of concrete anchorage shall be included in the contract unit price for the sewer complete in place and no additional compensation will be allowed therefore.

D. Blasting
Blasting will not be permitted under and near buildings, bridges, railroad tracks and underground structures and utilities. Elsewhere, blasting will be permitted, but only upon the written approval of the responsible agency and of the municipality in which work is being done. The contractor shall use all possible precautions against accidents or damage due to explosions or in the use or storage of explosives, and the contractor shall assume all risk and responsibility therefore and promptly settle all claims occasioned thereby thus saving the responsible agency harmless from any claims resulting from such actions. A licensed person in the use of explosives shall be employed to supervise the drilling and blasting operations.

The engineer shall fix the time during which the blasting operations may be carried on. Explosives shall be used, handled and stored as prescribed by the laws and regulations of OSHA, the State of Ohio and legal municipality. All explosives shall be kept in a safe place, at a sufficient distance from the work, so that in case of accident, no damage will occur to any part of the work or adjacent property.

Explosives shall be so stored and secured that they are not accessible to unauthorized persons. Blasting shall be conducted so as not to endanger persons or property and, whenever required, the blast shall be covered with mats or otherwise satisfactorily confined. The contractor shall be held responsible for and shall make good, any damage caused by blasting or accidental discharge. Blasting in tunnel sections and elsewhere, when permitted, shall be done in accordance with the provision of all applicable Local, State and Federal Laws.

E. Tunnel
All excavation shall be open cut from the surface and no tunneling will be allowed except when written permission has been previously obtained from the engineer or it is specifically called for on the contract documents. In case tunnelling is permitted under pavements, or specifically called for on the plans, the work shall be done in accordance with the supplemental specifications. The contractor must take out the necessary permits and make the necessary deposits for the proper replacing of pavement support or the breaking down and repairing of the pavement.

F. Sewers Within Jacked or Bored Casing Pipe
At the locations shown on the plans, the sewer pipe shall be installed in a steel casing pipe with track for sewer pipe as per details shown on the contract plans. Material, equipment and construction procedures shall comply with the contract documents and shall be in accordance with the supplemental specifications. Carrier pipe shall be blocked top and bottom to prevent floating.

G. Jacked, Bored or Tunneled Service Connections
At the locations shown on the contract documents, the sewer pipe shall be jacked into a bored hole as herein specified. A sufficiently large boring pit shall be excavated to allow for proper alignment of the drilling equipment and to allow the pipe to be pushed through the drilled hole. The alignment of pipe will not be allowed to vary more than two (2) feet at the upstream end of the house connections from a line drawn at right angles from the sanitary sewer at the wye or riser. The lateral connections shall be laid on a grade of not less than one percent (1%) but not more than three percent (3%), and the invert of the upstream end of the pipe shall be not less than nine (9) feet below the elevation of the center line of the street for residential areas and 12 feet for commercial and industrial areas. The upstream end of the pipe shall be fitted with a stopper painted yellow for sanitary (natural color for storm) and an increaser and adapter, if necessary.

In cases where local ordinances or governmental agencies prohibit the cutting of pavements, and the subsurface consists of rock or other hard material that does not lend itself to boring, the sewer shall, upon the order of the engineer, be installed by tunneling under the pavement.

H. Bracing and Sheeting or Excavation
All trench and excavation bracing and sheeting shall be in conformance with the latest available OSHA Requirements.

I. Drainage
The contractor shall, when ordered by the engineer, construct tight bulkheads across trench and provide pumps suitable for the removal of any water which may be encountered or which may accumulate in the trenches. Unless otherwise provided for in the contract documents, drainage water will not be permitted to flood the trench or flow through the sewer.

  1. Drainage of Trenches and Underdrains
    The sewer trench shall be kept free from storm, surface, and subsoil water or sewage. No joints shall be made under water. If necessary, the contractor shall install an underdrain embedded on all sides in crushed stone, as shown on the plans or standard construction details. This work shall be done only upon the written order of the responsible agency and it will paid for at the unit price bid for underdrains, unless otherwise specified.
  2. Existing Water Courses
    In open water courses, ditches or drains and drain pipes encountered during the progress of work, the contractor shall provide for protection and securing of a continuous flow in such courses or drains and shall repair any damage that may be done by reason of them. Unless otherwise specified, the full cost of such shall be included in other items of work and no additional compensation will be provided therefore.

J. Paved Surfaces
The contractor shall remove all pavements, road surfaces, curbing, driveways, and sidewalks within the lines of excavation. The contractor shall clean saw cut the pavement and base without undue shattering. All concrete curbing, driveways or sidewalks within the lines of excavation shall be broken up and removed by the contractor. All such work shall be done in accordance with the rules and regulations of the municipality in which the work is done.

The use of pneumatic or hydraulic backhoe boom mounted pavement breakers or weights dropped on pavement for breaking will not be allowed except by written permission of the responsible agency. The full cost of such work shall be included in the unit prices bid for sewers in place, unless otherwise specified.

K. Excavation by Machine or by Hand
The use of excavation machinery will be permitted, except in places where hand excavation is called for in the contract documents. The full cost of such work shall be included in the unit prices bid for sewers in place, unless otherwise specified.

L. Barricades, Guards and Safety Provisions
Temporary traffic control devices and facilities shall be furnished, erected and maintained in accordance with the latest edition of the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways prepared by the National Joint Committee on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. The work shall be conducted so that the least interference with traffic will result. Suitable steel plate bridges of a minimum of 0.75" thickness and recessed and anchored shall be provided over open trenches in pavements and driveways. The full cost of such shall be included in the unit prices bid for sewers in place, unless otherwise specified. 


5.203 PIPE INSTALLATION

A. General Information
All pipe for use in sanitary or storm sewers shall conform to the specifications for pipe in Sections 5.104, 5.105, 5.106, 5.107, 5.108, 5.109, 5.110, 5.111, 5.112, 5.113.

Only one (1) type and strength of pipe shall be used between any two (2) consecutive manholes, unless otherwise shown on the contract drawings and specifications.

Where ASTM, ANSI or other national organizations have published recommended practices for installation, such recommendations shall be followed. Clay pipe shall be installed in full compliance with ASTM C12, "Standard Recommended Practice for Installing Vitrified Clay Pipe." Concrete pipe, as specified by the American Concrete Pipe Association, Design Data - 40. Plastic pipe, ABS Solid Wall pipe, ABS Composite Wall pipe and PVC pipe, shall be installed in full compliance with ASTM D2321, "Standard Recommended Practice for Underground Installation of Flexible Thermoplastic Sewer Pipe". Reinforced plastic mortar pipe shall be installed per ASTM D-3839. All pipe shall be installed as shown in the Uniform Standard Sewer Detail Drawings.

B. Construction
After the trench has been excavated and the pipe bedded as specified in Section 5.202-C-3, the pipe shall be laid to the line and grade as specified. All joints shall be made as hereinafter specified. In no case shall material, except bedding material, be placed under the bell of the pipe to secure proper grade.

Previous to being lowered into the trench, each pipe shall be carefully inspected and those not meeting the specified requirements shall be rejected, clearly marked and immediately removed from the site of the work. Satisfactory means shall be used to hold the pipe in line while the pipe is being jointed, and due precautions shall be taken to insure that the spigot end of the pipe being laid is pushed to the proper depth into the bell of the proceeding pipe.

All sanitary and storm sewer connections shall be a minimum of six (6") inches I.D. and installed at a minimum of 1% grade. Variations to be approved by proper agencies.

Pipe shall be laid with the socket end upstream.

No pipe shall be laid within ten (10) feet of the machine excavating the trench nor within 40 feet of any place where blasting is being done. In no case shall more than 200 feet of trench be opened in advance of the pipe laying operations.

In sanitary sewer construction, no drainage shall run through the newly laid pipe. All sewers shall be tightly sealed at open ends at the completion of each day's work and no drainage water shall be permitted to flow through the sewer.

No storm water which accumulates in excavated basement areas is to be discharged into the sanitary sewerage system. Roof drains, foundation drains or any other clean water connections to the sanitary sewer system are prohibited.

All trenches and excavations shall, in general, be backfilled as soon as possible after the pipe is laid and jointed. Pipe cover zone shall be compacted to engineer's specifications. Where concrete encasement or cradle is used, pipe shall not be backfilled for at least 24 hours after placing concrete except that pipe may be covered to a depth of, not to exceed, 16 inches over the top of the pipe. The method employed in depositing the backfill shall be such as to prevent damage to the sewer or other structures. 


5.204 PIPE JOINTS

A. General Information
The pipes shall be very carefully stored and handled to prevent any damage and no pipes shall be connected if the jointing rings have been deformed or damaged from any cause. Unless otherwise specified by the engineer, directed or indicated on the plans, the following types of joints shall be used.

B. Joints for Clay Pipe
The joints for clay pipe shall conform to the provisions of Section 5.114 of these Standards.

When jointing pipe using a compression type joint, a lubricant as furnished or recommended by the pipe manufacturer, shall be applied in the manner prescribed by the pipe manufacturer. No jute or other caulking will be permitted. The spigot shall then be entered into the socket and the pipe shoved home in an approved manner to fully complete the particular type of joint which is being used. The socket and spigot shall be free of any foreign matter which may prevent proper jointing of the pipe. When laying the pipe in concrete bedding, care shall be exercised to prevent the joint materials from coming in contact with the fresh concrete until after the joint has been completed.

C. Joints for Concrete Pipe
The joints for concrete pipe shall conform to the provisions of Section 5.114 of these Specifications.

When jointing pipe using a compression type joint, a lubricant as furnished or recommended by the pipe manufacturer shall be applied in the manner prescribed by the pipe manufacturer. No jute or other caulking will be permitted. The spigot shall then be entered into the socket and the pipe shoved home in an approved manner to fully complete the particular type of joint which is being used. The socket and spigot shall be free of any foreign matter which may prevent proper jointing of the pipe. When laying the pipe in concrete, care shall be exercised to prevent the gasket from coming in contact with the fresh concrete until after the joint has been completed.

D. Joints for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Solid Wall Pipe
The joints for ABS Solid Wall Pipe shall conform to the provisions of Sections 5.114.

When jointing pipe for lateral sewers, ABS solvent cement joints shall be installed in accordance with ASTM D-2235. Pipe shall be cleaned of dust or moisture. Remove grease and oil with an approved cleaning solvent. Brush cement solvent uniformly on mating surfaces of inner socket and outer pipe. Insert the pipe immediately after applying cement, using a slight motion, and hold in position for a few seconds to prevent the pipe from backing out. Avoid rough handling for one (1) hour. For more complete instructions and cautionary notes, refer to Appendix A of ASTM D-2235.

E. Joints for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Composite Wall Pipe
The joints for ABS Composite Wall Pipe shall conform to the provisions of Section 5.114.

When jointing pipe using the required 0-ring compression type joint, a lubricant recommended by the gasket manufacturer shall be used. The gasket shall be lubricated by drawing it through lubricant held in the hand of the worker, thus coating the entire surface of the gasket allowing free rotation as the spigot is pushed into the socket. The socket and spigot shall be free of any foreign matter such as twigs, sand particles, or other material that might prevent closure of the joint.

F. Joints for Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Pipe
The joints for PVC pipe shall conform to the provisions of Section 5.114. When jointing pipe using the required 0-ring compression type joint, a lubricant recommended by the gasket manufacturer shall be used. The socket and spigot shall be free of any foreign matter such as twigs, sand particles, or other material that might prevent closure of the joint. Lubricant shall be applied to the bevel of the spigot end and approximately mid-way back to the insertion line. Do not apply lubricant inside the bell.

G. Joints for Polyvinyl Chloride Composite (PVC) Wall Pipe
Joints for PVC Composite wall pipe to conform to the provisions of Section 5.114.

H. Joints for Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic Mortar Pipe
Joints for fiberglass reinforced plastic mortar pipe shall conform to the provision of Section 5.114.

I. Joints for Cast and Ductile Iron Pipe
Joints for Cast and Ductile Iron Pipe shall conform to the provision of Section 5.114. The socket and spigot shall be free of any foreign matter. The gasket shall be thoroughly lubricated allowing free rotation as the spigot is pushed into the socket.

  1. Rubber Slip Joints
    All cast iron and ductile pipe, shall be laid with rubber slip joints, comparable to one (1) of the following:

    "Tyton" joint, as manufactured by the U.S. Pipe and Foundry Company.
    "Fastite" joint, as manufactured by the American Cast Iron Pipe Company.
    "Bell-Tite" joint, as manufactured by James B. Clow & Sons, Inc.
  2. Bolted Joints
    Where specified or called for on the plans, bolted or special type mechanical joints shall be used for cast iron, ductile iron or steel pipe. Such joints shall be made in a manner satisfactory to the responsible agency and in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
  3. Lead Joints
    Lead joints shall be used only in special repair projects with written approval of the municipal engineer and appropriate agencies.

J. Joints for Aluminized Steel Pipe (where applicable and accepted)
Joints for aluminized steel pipe shall conform to the provision of 5.114. 


5.205 BACKFILLING

A. Extent of Backfill
The backfill includes all backfilling, ramming, puddling or rolling as required, the regrading of adjacent disturbed areas, the replacing of drains and other surface and subsurface structures, the placing and maintaining of temporary sidewalks and driveways, furnishing of suitable backfill material and all appurtenant work incidental thereto.

B. Backfill Material
If approved by the responsible agency, material excavated from the trench shall be suitable for backfill. The contractor shall secure suitable material from other sources if required. The backfill material shall be brought up evenly and must be placed in 12 inch horizontal layers or to the specified depth with minimum 95% compaction or as required by the engineer, by methods satisfactory to the responsible agency. Puddling may be allowed except in heavy clay soils or during freezing weather. In general, the additional water shall be limited to achieving optimum moisture content for tamping procedures.

No backfilling shall be made during freezing weather except by written permission of the responsible agency, and no fill shall be made when the material already in the trench is frozen, nor shall frozen material be used in backfilling.

C. Premium Backfill
At all places where pavement, driveways, concrete gutters, and sidewalks are removed in the sewer construction and/or proposed in new construction, all backfilling of the sewer trench shall be made with limestone screenings or coarse aggregate as specified on the plans.

It is the contractor's responsibility that the pipe bedding and cover is in accordance with the "Typical Trench Details" Sheet No. 11/27 of the Uniform Standard Sewer Details.

D. Additional Premium Backfill
Where ordered by the responsible agency, sections of the trench, other than those specified above or called for on the plans, shall also be backfilled with premium material. All such additional backfilling ordered by the responsible agency will be paid for at the contract unit price bid for "Additional Premium Backfill Material" unless otherwise specified.

It is the contractor's responsibility that the pipe bedding and cover is in accordance with the "Typical Trench Details" Sheet No. 11/27 of Uniform Standard Sewer Details


5.206 DISPOSAL OF SURPLUS EXCAVATED MATERIAL

All surplus excavated material shall be removed and disposed of by the contractor. The cost of this work shall be included in the contract unit price bid for sewers and no additional compensation will be allowed, therefore, unless otherwise specified. 


5.207 BRANCH CONNECTIONS AND RISERS

Branches, "Y"s or "T"s of the size specified, shall be installed at the locations shown on the plans and shall be standard fittings. Openings at the outer ends of the branches shall be closed and sealed with approved stoppers. When required on account on depth of the sewer, branches shall be built up vertically with riser pipes to a point nine (9) feet below the top of the building line ground elevation as shown on the drawings, using bends whenever necessary. Branch connections and risers shall be included in the contract unit price unless otherwise specified. All pipe joints shall be carefully made and shall conform to the requirements in these Specifications of the type of pipe used. 


5.208 LATERAL CONNECTIONS

Sewer service street connections shall be constructed as shown on the plans and shall be laid in accordance with Section 5.203 from the lateral sewer or risers to a point designated on the plans.

All street connections shall be closed and sealed at the outer end with approved premium stoppers.

All lateral connections crossing under existing pavements shall be constructed of cast iron or ductile iron and be installed by boring and pushing the ductile iron pipe through the excavated hole unless written permission is granted by the responsible agency to use the open trench method. 


5.209 MANHOLES

All manholes shall be built in accordance with the plans and Uniform Standard Sewer Details. Plastic manholes are not allowed. Sanitary manholes shall be constructed of precast concrete manhole sections conforming to Section 5.118. Storm manholes shall be constructed of either precast concrete manhole sections conforming to Section 5.118, or concrete brick conforming to Section 5.119 B, or shale sewer brick conforming to Section 5.119 A.

All brick used in manhole construction shall be laid in full mortar beds with no mortar joint appearing on the inner surface of the manhole exceeding three-eighths inches (3/8) thick.

When sewer brick is used for manhole construction, they shall be laid in 1 to 2 Portland Cement mortar with bricks arranged radially as headers, forming a wall nine inches (9) thick. In deep manholes, the wall shall be 13 inches below a point 12 feet from the surface to a maximum depth of 28 feet.

Two ring brick arches shall be incorporated in the manhole masonry walls around all sewer pipes passing through the walls. The entire outer surface of sewer brick manholes shall be plastered with a smooth coating of 1 to 2 Portland Cement mortar at least one-half inch (1/2) in thickness. The top of the walls of manholes shall be properly leveled off with mortar so as to form a flat surface upon which the cast iron manhole cover ring is to rest and the manhole shall be carried to proper height above sewer. In precast manholes, provisions shall be made for a minimum of four inches (4) and a maximum of 12 inches of grade rings or brick (brick acceptable in storm sewer manholes) between the uppermost precast section and the bottom of the cast iron manhole cover ring. All manhole lift holes shall be sealed water tight with a non shrink grout or an expanding portland cement mixture such as Octoplug or equal. Sanitary sewer manholes shall have a three inch (3) minimum vertical distance from the bottom of the casting to the top of the conical section for the installation of chimney seals. The contractor shall furnish and set in mortar, upon the top of each manhole, a cast iron manhole ring and cover, ventilated or solid as specified. Where the pipe passes through the outside face of manhole walls, there shall be a pipe joint such that slight flexing or motion can take place in the plane of the wall face without shearing the sewer pipe.

Manhole steps, as specified in Section 5.117, shall be built into each manhole in accordance with the Uniform Standard Details and shall be continued downward along the interior side of the manhole spaced not less than 12 inches apart nor more than 16 inches apart. Landing platforms shall be installed in manholes that are over 28 feet deep to the invert with a maximum vertical spacing of 20 feet. All sanitary covers in streets, residential areas and areas subject to inundation shall be solid with the notation on the covers, "SAN SEWER". All other areas, except for trunk sewers, solid covers may be used. Watertight manhole covers are to be used wherever the manhole tops may be flooded by street runoff or high water. Locked manhole covers may be desirable in isolated easement locations or where vandalism may be a problem.

New sanitary sewer manholes shall be equipped with chimney seals. Chimney seals can either be installed internally or externally. If internal, the seal shall remain flexible throughout 25 year design life, allowing repeated vertical movement of the frame of not less than two (2) inches and/or repeated horizontal movement of not less than ½". The rubber portion of the seal shall have a minimum thickness of 3/16" and be made from a high quality rubber compound conforming to the applicable requirements of ASTM C-923 with a minimum 1500 psi tensile strength, a maximum 18% compression set and a hardness (durometer) of 48± 5. The bands shall be formed from 16 gauge stainless steel conforming to ASTM A-240, type 304 and shall have a positive locking mechanism. Any screws, bolts or nuts used for this mechanism shall be stainless steel, conforming to ASTM F-593 and 594, Type 304.

If external seals are used, cement mortar shall be used in the joint between the manhole frame and grade rings. This joint shall be ¾" thick. Butyl rubber caulk, conforming to AASHTO M198 Type B may be applied to the lower sealing surface of the sleeve to fill any minor irregularities in the masonry surface.

The material utilized for external seals shall be of the same quality as the material utilized for internal seals.

Chimney seals to be installed per manufacturer's specifications.

All costs for furnishing and installing the seal shall be included in the unit price bid for sanitary manholes.

A. Drop Manholes
Where shown on the plans, drop manholes shall be built in accordance with the Uniform Standard Sewer Details. The drop pipe shall be one-half of the main sewer diameter, eight (8) inch minimum and a 24 inch maximum diameter and shall be encased in reinforced concrete to the dimensions shown on the Standard Details. The cost of the drop and such encasement shall be included in the contract unit price for the drop manhole, complete, in place, unless otherwise specified.

B. Inlets and Catch Basins
Inlets and catch basins shall be built in accordance with plans and the Uniform Standard Sewer Details. Precast polymer concrete trench drain types, rated for H-20 loading, complying with ASTM C-579 for polymer concrete and ASTM A-536-84 for ductule iron frame and grate is acceptable upon approval from municipal engineer where work is being performed.

C. Bulkheads
The contractor shall construct masonry bulkheads in all existing sewers which are cut and abandoned, in all stub sewers in new sewer construction, at all locations shown on the plans and at all other locations where so directed by the responsible agency. They shall be built nine inches (9) thick, unless otherwise specified, and with a one-half inch (1/2) coating of 1 to 2 cement mortar. The cost of constructing bulkheads shall be included in the contract price bid for various sewer items and no additional compensation will be allowed, therefore, unless otherwise specified. 


5.210 CONCRETE AND MASONRY

A. Frost and Dampness Protection of Masonry
All masonry work shall be carried on under dry conditions and be properly protected form cold weather and dampness. Such work shall be protected from frost to the extent and equivalent to what is required for concrete as specified under Section 5.210-D-6 of these Specifications.

All material and all work in progress shall be adequately covered during periods of precipitation. The cost of frost and dampness protection of masonry shall be included in the contract price bid for various sewer items and no additional compensation will be allowed, therefore, unless otherwise specified.

B. Mortar
Mortar shall be composed of one (1) part, portland cement, two (2) parts mortar sand by volume. Mortar sand shall conform to Section 5.121 of these Specifications. All mortar shall be mixed in tight boxes or mixers furnished by the contractor. In mixing the mortar, the contractor shall accurately measure the sand and cement. Shovel measurements will not be permitted. In no case shall mortar be used that has once begun to set; retempering will not be allowed. No lime or other admixtures of any description shall be used unless so specified or permitted by the responsible agency.

C. Concrete

  1. General Information
    Concrete shall consist of a mixture of Portland Cement, fine aggregates, coarse aggregates and water, proportioned and mixed as provided in these Specifications and constructed as shown on the plans. In proportioning concrete materials, one (1) sack of cement shall be considered as being one (1) cubic foot volume and 94 pounds weight. Total maximum water shall be considered as that including added water and surface water in the aggregates. Cement shall be weighed on a balance scale separate from those used to weigh the other ingredients. Aggregates shall be measured by weight. Batch weights shall be based on surface dried materials and shall be corrected to take into account the weight of surface water contained in the aggregate. Water shall be measured by volume or weight.
  2. Unit Stresses
    All structural concrete, both plain and reinforced, shall develop a minimum ultimate compressive stress of 4000 psi at 28 days. Unless otherwise noted on plans, all concrete shall be taken to be 4000 psi. Admixtures shall not be used unless approved by the responsible agency.

    Concrete for bedding, encasement of pipe and general fill purposes shall have a minimum concrete mix strength of 3000 psi at 28 days. Admixtures shall not be used unless approved by the responsible agency.
  3. Portions of Aggregates
    Before starting any concrete work, the contractor shall inform the engineer as to the source of the aggregates. A testing laboratory will then test representative samples of coarse and fine aggregates and establish the weights of each aggregate to be used in the concrete mixes.

    The responsible agency may change the relative proportions of fine and coarse aggregate, at any time during construction, to conform to variations in the character of the material used, at the same time maintaining the water-cement ratio and the specified slumps.
  4. Quality Control
    It is the intent of these Specifications that all concrete construction shall be monitored by a testing laboratory approved by the responsible agency. This includes the testing of materials, establishment of batch weights, inspection and testing, per the latest ASTM Specifications.

    ASSUMED STRENGTH OF CONCRETE MIXTURES 
    Water Content U.S.
    Gal., per 94 lb.
    Sack of Cement
    Assumed Compressive
    Strength at 28 Days,
    Lb. per sq. Inch
    7 1/4 2500
    6 1/2 3000
    5 3/4 3500
    5 4000


    NOTE: In interpreting this table, surface water contained in the aggregate must be included as part of the mixture water in computing the water content.

    In all cases, the materials used in concrete shall conform to their respective sections of these Specifications.

    No concrete exposed to the action of freezing weather shall have a water content exceeding six (6) gallons per sack of cement.
  5. Storage of Materials
    The contractor shall provide suitable means of storing and protecting the cement against dampness. Different grades or brands of cement shall be stored separately. Sacks of cement, which for any reason have become partially set, or which contain lumps or caked cement, shall not be used.

    Each size and type of aggregate shall be stored separately and kept in such a manner as to avoid the inclusion of all foreign matter. Aggregates containing lumps of frozen or partially cemented material shall not be used in the concrete.

    Coarse aggregates shall be stored in such a manner as to avoid segregation of particles and to maintain a reasonably uniform moisture content.
  6. Consistency of Concrete
    The proportions of aggregate to cement shall be such as to produce concrete that can be worked readily into the corners and angles of the forms and around the reinforcement without excessive spading and without segregation or accumulation of water on the surface. In no case shall concrete be placed which shows a slump outside the following limits:

      SLUMP IN INCHES 
    TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION Maximum Minimum
    Reinforced Footings and Headwalls 4 2
    Reinforced Beams, Columns, Slabs & Walls 5 3
    Pipe Cradling, Encasement & Fill 5 3


  7. Water-Cement Ratio
    Inasmuch as the strength of concrete is a function of water-cement ratio, it is imperative that this ratio, as established by the testing laboratory approved by the responsible agency, not be exceeded under any circumstances.

    In the event that the given water-cement ratio does not produce the proper consistency and workability of the concrete mixes, the testing laboratory will change the relative proportions of the aggregates with the written approval and permission of the responsible agency. Free moisture held by the aggregates must be included in determining the water-cement ratio.
  8. Tests on Concrete
    a. During the progress of the work, compression test specimens shall be made and cured in accordance with the "Standard Method of Making and Curing Concrete Compression and Flexure Test Specimens in the Field", ASTM Designation C-31. Not less than three (3) specimens shall be made for each test, nor less than one (1) test for each 250 cu. yd. of concrete of each class. Specimens shall be cured under laboratory conditions except that when there is a possibility of the surrounding air temperature falling below 40°F. Additional specimens may be required to be cured under job conditions unless otherwise specified.

    b. Specimens shall be tested in accordance with the "Standard Method of Test for Compressive Strength of Molded Concrete Cylinders", ASTM Designation C-39.

    c. The standard age of test shall be 28 days. Seven day (7) tests shall be made to provide the relationship between the 7 and 28 day strengths of the concrete as established by test for the materials and proportions used.

    d. All concrete that does not meet the specified strength requirements as indicated by compression test cylinders, shall be retested by taking cores from the completed structures and testing them. If the concrete fails to meet the minimum strength requirements on this second test, the responsible agency shall order its removal in writing. Any such removal and replacement shall be done at the contractor's expense.


D. Mixing and Placing Concrete

  1. Preparation of Equipment and Place of Deposit
    a. Before placing concrete, all equipment for mixing and transporting the concrete shall be cleaned, all debris and ice shall be removed from the places to be occupied by the concrete, forms shall be thoroughly wetted (except in freezing weather) or oiled, and masonry filler units that will be in contact with concrete shall be well drenched (except in freezing weather), and the reinforcement shall be thoroughly cleaned of ice and other coatings.

    b. Water shall be removed from place of deposit before concrete is placed unless otherwise permitted by the responsible agency.
  2. Mixing of Concrete
    a. The concrete shall be mixed until there is a uniform distribution of the materials and shall be discharged completely before the mixer is recharged.

    b. For job-mixed concrete, the mixer shall be rotated at a speed recommended by the manufacturer and mixing shall be continued for at least one (1) minute after all materials are in the mixer.

    c. Ready-mixed concrete shall be mixed and delivered in accordance with the requirements set forth in the "Standard Specifications for Ready-Mixed Concrete", ASTM Designation C-94.

    d. Mixing concrete by hand will not be permitted except when approved by the responsible agency.
  3. Conveying
    a. Concrete shall be conveyed from the mixer to the place of final deposit by methods which will prevent the separation or loss of the materials.

    b. Equipment for chuting, pumping and pneumatically conveying concrete shall be of such size and design as to insure a practically continuous flow of concrete at the delivery end without separation of the materials.
  4. Depositing
    a. Concrete shall be deposited as nearly as practicable in its final position to avoid segregation due to rehandling or flowing. The concreting shall be carried on at such a rate that the concrete is at all times plastic and flows readily into the space between the bars. No concrete that has partially hardened or been contaminated by foreign material shall be deposited on the work, nor shall retempered concrete be used.

    b. When concreting is once started, it shall be carried on as a continuous operation until the placing of the panel or section is completed. The top surface shall be generally level.

    When construction joints are necessary, they shall be made in accordance with Section 5.210-E-7.

    c. All concrete shall be thoroughly compacted by suitable means during the operation of placing and shall be thoroughly worked around reinforcement and embedded fixtures and into the corners of the forms.
  5. Curing
    Provision shall be made for maintaining concrete in a moist condition for at least seven (7) days after the placement of the concrete, except for high-early-strength concretes, moist curing shall be provided for at least the first 72 hours. Any fast set concrete shall be kept in a moist condition for at least four (4) hours.
  6. Cold Weather Requirements
    a. Adequate equipment shall be provided for heating the concrete materials and protecting the concrete when the atmosphere temperature is 40°F or less. No frozen materials containing ice shall be used.

    b. All concrete materials and all reinforcement, forms, fillers and ground with which the concrete is to come in contact, shall be free from frost. Whenever the temperature of the surrounding air is below 40°F, all concrete in the forms shall have temperatures of between 50°F and 80°F, and adequate means shall be provided for maintaining a temperature of not less than 50°F for five (5) days, except, when high-early-strength concrete is used, the temperature shall be maintained at not less than 50°F for 72 hours or for as much more time as is necessary to insure proper curing of the concrete. The housing, covering or other protection used in connection with curing shall remain in place and intact at least 24 hours after the artificial heating is discontinued. No dependence shall be placed on salt or other chemicals for the prevention of freezing. No concrete exposed to the action of freezing weather shall have a water content exceeding six (6) gallons per sack of cement.


E. Concrete Forms and Construction Details

  1. Design of Forms
    Forms shall conform to the shape, lines and dimensions of the members as called for on the plans, and shall be substantial and sufficiently tight to prevent leakage of mortar. They shall be properly braced or tied together so as to maintain position and shape.
  2. Removal of Forms
    Forms shall be removed in such a manner as to insure the complete safety of the structure. Where the structure as a whole is supported on shoring, the removable floor forms, beams and girder sides, column and similar vertical forms may be removed after 72 hours or with written approval from the responsible agency, providing the concrete is sufficiently hard not to be injured thereby. In no case shall the supporting forms or shoring be removed until the members have acquired sufficient strength to support safely their weight and the load thereon.
  3. Cleaning and Bending Reinforcement
    Steel reinforcement, at the time concrete is placed, shall be free from rust, scale or other coatings that will destroy or reduce the bond. All bending shall be done in accordance with current ACI requirements. Steel reinforcement to be epoxy coated if required by the engineer.
  4. Placing Reinforcement
    Steel reinforcement shall be accurately placed in accordance with the plans and shall be adequately secured in position by concrete or metal chairs and spacers.
  5. Splices and Offsets in Reinforcement
    a. In slabs, beams and girders, splices of reinforcement at points of maximum stress shall be avoided. Splices shall provide sufficient lap to transfer the stress between bars by bond and shear.

    b. Where changes in the cross section of a column occur, the longitudinal bars shall be offset in a region where lateral support is afforded. Where offset, the slope of the inclined portion shall not be more than one (1) to six (6), and in case of tied columns, the ties shall be spaced not more than three inches (3) on center for a distance of one foot (1) below the below the actual point of offset.
  6. Concrete Protection for Reinforcement
    a. The steel reinforcement shall be protected by the thickness of concrete indicated on the plans. Where not otherwise shown, the thickness of concrete over the reinforcement shall be as follows: Where concrete is deposited against the ground without the use of forms, not less than three inches (3). Where concrete is exposed to the weather, or exposed to the ground but placed in forms, not less than two inches (2) for bars more than five-eighths inch (5/8) in diameter and one and one-half inches (1½) for bars five-eighths inch (5/8) or less in diameter. In slabs and walls not exposed to the ground or to the weather, not less than three-fourths inch (3/4). In beams, girders, and columns not exposed to the ground or to the weather, not less than one and one-half inches (1½ ). In all cases, the thickness of concrete over the reinforcement shall be at least equal to the diameter of round bars.

    b. Exposed reinforcement bars intended for bonding with future extensions shall be protected from corrosion by concrete or other adequate covering.
  7. Construction Joints
    Joints not indicated on the plans shall be so made and located as to least impair the strength of the structure. Where a joint is to be made, the surface of the concrete shall be thoroughly cleaned and all debris removed. In addition, vertical joints shall be thoroughly wetted and slushed with a coat of neat cement grout immediately before the placing of new concrete.



5.211 INSPECTION AND TESTING
 

A. Service Markings
Whenever a stone or concrete sidewalk or curb exists, service connections shall be indicated by witness signs cut into the sidewalk or curb. Each riser, slant or "Y" connection, left plugged at the sewer, shall be evidenced by a triangle and each sewer curb connection, plugged at the curb, shall be evidenced by an arrow.

B. Line Acceptance Tests for Sewers

  1. All sanitary sewers 24 inches in diameter and under shall be tested for leakage in the following manner:

    After completing a reasonable section of sewer and the manholes have been completed, the contractor shall furnish all equipment, material and personnel to conduct a "line acceptance" test using low pressure air. The equipment to be used shall have prior approval and the test shall be conducted under the supervision of the responsible agency. The line acceptance test shall be conducted after backfilling has been completed.

    All wyes, tees or end of lateral stubs shall be suitably capped to withstand the internal test pressures. Such caps shall be a type which is easily removable for future lateral connections or extensions.

    After a manhole-to-manhole section of the line has been cleaned, it shall be plugged at each manhole with pneumatic plugs inflated to 35 psig internal pressure. The design of the plugs shall be such that they will hold against the line test pressure without requiring external blocking or bracing. External blocking or bracing may be used for extra protection. Each pneumatic plug shall have a sealing length equal to or greater than the diameter of the pipe in which it is to be used so that effective sealing will always take place around any nodule or lump that may be on the inner surface of the pipe. Before actual line testing starts, the pneumatic plugs shall pass the following qualifying test in the presence of the responsible agency: one (1) length of pipe shall be laid on the ground and sealed at both ends with the pneumatic plugs to be checked; air shall be introduced into the pipe until the pipe pressure reaches 15 psig. The pneumatic plugs being checked shall hold against this pressure without bracing being needed and without movement of the plugs out of the pipe. All pneumatic plugs shall pass the aforementioned qualifications before being used to test the actual installation.

    One (1) pneumatic plug used in this testing procedure shall have two (2) factory equipped hose connections in addition to that hose connection used only for the inflation of the pneumatic plug. One (1) of the additional hose connections shall be used for continuously reading the air pressure rise in the sealed line. The second additional hose connection shall be used only for introducing low pressure air into the sealed line.

    There shall be a minimum three inch (3) diameter, 0-36 psig gauge supplied for reading the internal pressure of the line being tested.

    Calibrations from the 0-10 psig range shall be in tenths of pounds and this 0-10 portion shall cover 90% of the complete dial range.

    Low pressure air shall be introduced into the sealed line until the internal pressure reaches 4.0 psig greater than the average back pressure of any ground water pressure that may be over the pipe. At least two (2) minutes shall be allowed for the air pressure to stabilize. After the stabilization period, the hose for introducing low pressure air into the sealed line shall be disconnected from the air source in such a manner as to retain the pressure in the sealed line. The starting pressure shall not exceed 9.0 psi.

    The portion of line being tested shall be accepted if the portion under test does not lose air at a rate greater than 0.003 cfm per square foot of internal pipe surface when tested at an average pressure of 3.0 psig greater than any pressure exerted by ground water that may be over the pipe at the time of the test.

    The previous requirement shall be accomplished by performing the test as follows: The time required in minutes for the pressure to decrease from 3.5 to 2.5 psig greater than the average back pressure of any ground water that may be over the pipe shall not be less than the time shown for the given diameter in the following table:

    Pipe Diameter in Inches  Minutes
    8 4.0
    10 5.0
    12 5.5
    15 7.5
    18 8.5
    21 10.0
    24 12.5


    Where high ground water is known to exist, the height in feet of ground water above the invert of the sewer shall be divided by 2.3 to establish the pounds of pressure that will be added to the internal air pressure used for the line acceptance test in determining the time in minutes for the air pressure to decrease 1.0 psig.

    If the installation fails to meet the requirements of this test, the contractor shall determine at his own expense the source of leakage. The contractor shall repair or replace all defective materials and/or workership and then re-test the installation for compliance with these Specifications for the line acceptance test.

    For specific reference on these tests, refer to ASTM C-924 for Concrete Pipe, ASTM F- 1417 for Plastic Pipe, ASTM C-828 for Clay Pipe.

    Air testing shall be performed by a certified independent agency.
  2. Deflection Test
    All plastic pipe (sanitary and storm) having a pipe stiffness less than 200 psi shall be tested for proper installation by means of deflection attainment. Deflection testing is not required for plastic pipe with a pipe stiffness of 200 psi or greater. In addition to material tests, construction compaction and leakage tests required elsewhere in these Standards, the contractor is required to install the pipe in such a manner that the diametric deflection shall not exceed five percent (5%). To attain this requirement, the backfill materials surrounding the pipe shall be compacted to the required Standard Densities called out in ASTM D-2321. The sectors requiring compaction shall include the bed and side fill material, as well as the material placed above the pipe for a distance of 12 inches.

    Deflection tests shall be performed no sooner than 60 days following completion of backfill. Final deflection tests shall be performed by the responsible agency of an accredited, independent testing laboratory that shall submit verification records of results and dates tested. Maximum ring deflection of the pipe under load shall be limited to five percent (5%) of the base inside diameter listed in ASTM D-2751 for ABS Solid Wall Pipe and ASTM-D 2680 for ABS Composite Wall Pipe. For Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Pipe use Base Inside Diameter as per ASTM D-3034, ASTM F-679, F-789, F-794, F-949 and AASTHO M-304, Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic Mortar Pipe, ASTM D-3262.

    All pipe failing to maintain the five percent (5%) maximum deflection diameter or larger listed for the applicable type of pipe shall be considered to have been improperly installed and shall be relaid or replaced by the contractor at no cost to the responsible agency.

    Deflection testing shall be accomplished by using an electronic deflectometer which produces a continuous record of diameter readings or by pulling a go, no-go gage through the pipe. Go, no-go gages may be mandrels, spheres, pin-sleds, or other device approved by the responsible agency prior to testing.
  3. Weir - Test
    Weir test shall be performed on all sanitary sewers in pipe sizes 27 inches in diameter and larger as specified herein. The maximum permissible leakage shall be 100 gallons/per inch of diameter/per mile/per day when field tested by actual infiltration conditions. Where low ground water conditions exist, exfiltration tests shall be used.
  4. All sewers storm and sanitary 48" in diameter or larger constructed under these Standards shall be subjected to visual inspection. Sewers in sizes smaller than 48" in diameter shall be internally TV inspected. Costs will be paid for by the contractor unless otherwise provided for in the specifications. The responsible agency shall retain ownership of all inspection records. Following any repairs and/or cleaning, the lines shall be resubmitted to the low pressure air "Line Acceptance" test prior to photographic or television inspection. The municipal engineer may require air test or weir test on storm sewers.

    Whenever sewer work is adjacent to a water main, test of the main may be required upon completion of the sewer work along each section of water main between line valves to determine if any leakage has been caused by the contractor's operations.

    In case leakage is shown by the test, the contractor shall be responsible for any repairs. After completion of the contract, a final test of the entire main shall be made and approved by the responsible water authority.


C. Leakage Tests for Force Mains

  1. Methodology
    All pipes, valves, fittings, etc., shall be laid in such a manner as to assure that all joints are watertight. After the pipe is laid and before backfill is placed around the joints, such lengths of the force main, as determined by the responsible agency, shall be tested under a hydrostatic pressure of 75 pounds per square inch above the maximum pump head, but, in no case, shall such force mains be tested at less than 100 pounds per square inch. The test shall be conducted under the direction of the responsible agency or the agency's appointed agent. The contractor may obtain water for testing by observing the rules and regulations enforced in the municipality or township in which the work is being done. The contractor shall furnish pressure gauges, suitable pump or pumps, pipes, test heads, and all appliances, labor, fuel, and other appurtenances necessary to make the test.

    The test pressure shall be maintained for a length of time determined by the responsible agency to allow for a thorough examination of joints and elimination of leaks if any should be discovered. Minimum time duration without pressure drop shall be one (1) hour. The pipe lines shall be made absolutely tight under the test pressure.

    After the test has been completed, the contractor shall drain all pipes and surrounding areas. The contractor shall open all valves, air cocks, bypasses, and drains in the section of the installation tested immediately after the test to prevent damage to the force main and appurtenances due to freezing weather.
  2. Alternate Method
    The force main shall be tested under the same hydrostatic pressure as above. The test pressure shall be maintained for a period of two (2) hours by pumping additional water into the main, if necessary. The quantity of water thus pumped into the main multiplied by 12 shall be taken as the leakage per 24 hours.

    The permitted leakage shall not exceed a rate of 75 gallons per 24 hours, per mile of pipe, per inch of nominal diameter.

    In using this method of testing, the contractor may backfill the pipe except at joints immediately following the laying and before the actual test has been made. In case the leakage is in excess of the permissible 75 gallons/mile/inch of diameter/day, the contractor shall locate and repair the leak. The contractor shall furnish suitable means for determining the quantity of water lost by leakage during the test.

    The method of testing any force mains shall be approved by the responsible agency. Additional testing and/or different test conditions may be specified in the contract specifications or contract drawings. All testing and repairs shall be included in the unit price bid for sewers and force mains in place and no additional compensation will be provided, therefore, unless otherwise specified.



5.212 FABRICATION AND ERECTION OF STEEL
 

A. Structural Steel
In general, the fabrication of steel and the erection thereof shall be in accordance with the latest "Specifications for the Design, Fabrication and Erection of Structural Steel for Buildings" and the "Code of Standard Practice for Steel Buildings and Bridges" of the American Institute of Steel Construction.

In the event that work is done on land under the jurisdiction of railroads, highway departments or other similar agencies, the specifications will be subject to the approval of such agencies.

B. Reinforcing Steel
Fabrication and erection of reinforcing steel shall conform to the current edition of the "Specifications for Placing Reinforcement" and the "Code of Standard Practice" of the Concrete Reinforcing Steel Institute. 


5.213 WELDING

Welding of iron and steel shall be done by operators who have been previously qualified by tests as prescribed in the American Welding Society's "Standard Qualification Procedure" to perform the type of work required. All equipment shall be of a type which will produce proper current so that the operator may produce satisfactory welds. The welding machine shall be 200-400 ampere, 25-40 volt capacity.

Electrodes shall be of classification numbers E-6011, E-6012, E-6013, or E-6020, and shall be suitable for positions and other conditions of intended use in accordance with the instructions with each container.

Field welding shall be done by direct current.

The technique of welding employed, the appearance and quality of welds made, and the methods of correcting defective work, shall conform to the current edition of Welding Society "Code for Arc Welding in Building Construction", Section 4, Workmanship.

Surfaces to be welded shall be free from loose scale, rust, grease, paint and other foreign material, except that mill scale which withstands vigorous wire brushing may remain. A light film of linseed oil may likewise be disregarded, joint surfaces shall be free from fins and tears.

No welding shall be done when the base metal temperature is lower than 0°F. At temperatures between 32°F and 0°F, the surface of all areas within three inches (3) of a point where a weld is started shall be heated until they are too hot to touch before welding is started.

Finished members shall be true to line and free from twists, bends and open joints. 


5.214 MISCELLANEOUS

A. Clean-up, Repairs, Seeding and Sodding

  1. Clean-up
    As the work progresses, the contractor shall keep the site reasonably free of debris, discarded materials and equipment. He shall maintain streets in a safe and convenient condition for travel as well as providing vehicular access to the abutting properties. Upon completion of the work, the contractor shall remove all surplus excavated materials, tools, equipment and temporary buildings from the site and restore all pavements, road surfaces, curbing, gutters, driveways, driveway culvert pipes, sidewalks, retaining walls, guard rails, utility and service lines, mail boxes, and other items affected by the construction operations. All such work shall be of a quality and dimensions approved by the responsible agency, including all disturbed driveway culvert pipes which shall be replaced with new pipe in a minimum of 14 gauge and 12 inch diameter or as shown on the plans.

    The contractor shall perform such replacements as soon as practicable after completion of the sewer and shall save the responsible agency free and harmless from all suits for damages to persons or property arising from or caused by this construction.

    Before final acceptance for the work, the contractor shall, as directed by the responsible agency, clear the sewers of any mortar, dirt of other refuse that may have been left or accumulated in the sewers. All manholes, inlets, catch basins and other structures shall be cleared of all forms, scaffolding, bulkheads, centering, surplus mortar, rubbish or dirt and left in a clean and proper condition.
  2. Seeding and Sodding
    The contractor shall restore to original grade and seed and/or sod all lawn and grass areas disturbed by construction. All areas adjacent to residences shall be sodded. Areas in easements away from residences shall be seeded. The contractor, at his/her option and with prior approval of the responsible agency, may substitute sod for the areas specified for seed, all at no change in contract price.

    a. Material
    1) Sod shall be 100% Marion Blue grass, strongly rooted and free of pernicious weeds and bent grasses. It shall be mowed to a height not to exceed two inches (2) before cutting and lifting and shall be of uniform thickness; not over one and one-half inches (1½) or less than one inch (1) of soil. Sod shall be delivered within 24 hours after being cut and shall be installed within 36 hours after cutting.

    2) Grass seed shall be vendor-mixed and delivered to the site in sealed bags and guaranteed by the dealer. Mix shall be as follows:

    35% - Kentucky Bluegrass
    55% - Creeping Red Fescue
    5% - Red Top
    5% - White Dutch Clover

    b. Method of Installation
    1) Sodding
    The subgrade material shall be loosened and mixed to a depth of two (2) to four (4) inches. All sticks, stone over two (2) inches and rubbish shall be removed and the whole area compacted so that it will be parallel to the finished grade. A commercial fertilizer formula 10-6-4 shall be applied to the upper two (2) inches of soil at the rate of ten (10) pounds per 1000 square feet and thoroughly raked in.

    Sod shall be laid so that no voids occur and shall be tamped and rolled. Screened topsoil shall be brushed or raked over the area to be sodded and the sod shall be thoroughly watered. The complete surface should be true to finished grades.

    Sod on slopes steeper than two to one (2:1) shall be held in place by six (6) inch long wooden pins driven flush with the top of the sod at two (2) foot intervals or by other methods approved by the responsible agency.

    2) Seeding
    Before any seed is sown, the ground shall be raked until surface is smooth, friable and of uniform fine texture, then lightly compacted. Area shall have a minimum 6" of top soil. Low spots shall be brought up to finished grade. A 10-6-4 formula commercial fertilizer shall be evenly applied at the rate of 15 pounds per 1000 square feet. Seed shall be applied evenly at a rate of four (4) pounds per 100 square feet with a mechanical spreader, lightly raked, then watered with a fine spray.

    c. Maintenance
    All seeded and sodded areas shall be protected and maintained by watering, mowing and replanting until an even dense growth is started. Dead sod or non-growing seeded areas shall be repaired at the direction of the responsible agency engineer. The full cost of all clean-up, repairs, seeding, sodding, reseeding and resodding shall be included in the unit prices bid for other items or work, unless otherwise specified.

    d. Replacement of Trees and Shrubs
    The contractor shall be responsible for replacing trees, shrubbery and sprinkler systems damaged during and all appurtenant work incidental thereto, unless otherwise provided in the plans and specifications. The full cost of this shall be included in the unit prices for sewers in place.


B. Measurement for Payment

  1. General
    The contract price per unit of storm sewer, sanitary sewer, manholes, catch basins, inlets, curb connections and other items, is for the work complete in place as shown on the plans and specifications regardless of the character of the material encountered in the excavation or contingencies of any other nature, unless otherwise specified. Unit and lump sum prices for such work complete in place shall include the furnishing of all labor, materials, tools and equipment necessary for its proper performance, unless otherwise specified. All costs such as excavation, backfill, relocation, repair or replacement of existing structures, sheeting and bracing of excavations, clean-up and repairs and all other operations required in the construction shall be included in the contract unit or lump sum prices, and no additional compensation will be allowed thereof unless otherwise specified.

    It is the intent of these Specifications that the cost of the work which does not have pay items provided for, shall be included in the contract unit or lump sum prices for items shown on the bid blanks.
  2. Sewers
    The number of linear feet of sewers to be paid for under their respective items, shall be the actual number of lineal feet of each class and size, measured continuously along the center line of the sewer through manholes, "T"s and "Y" branches.

    Such payment shall include the furnishing, laying, connecting and testing of the sewer; the excavation, sheeting, concrete encasement or cradling of the pipe, backfilling, including premium backfill; the replacement of all structures and pavements and the furnishing of all labor, materials, tools and equipment to complete the work as specified in the contract document or ordered by the responsible agency. Such payment shall include all items of expense except such items as are stated in the specifications to have separate payments.

    When a sewer begins or ends at a manhole, measurement shall be made to the center of the manhole. At all points where sewers change size, the measurement for each size shall be made to the center of the manhole where the change is made.
  3. Manholes
    The number of manholes of each type to be paid for under their respective items shall be the actual number of manholes of each type installed in the work, including excavation, backfill, masonry, stubs, cast iron and ductile iron frames, covers, steps, pipe drops, concrete, chimney seals, and all other required appurtenances.
  4. Catch Basins and Inlets
    The number of catch basins and inlets to be paid for at the respective contract prices shall be the actual number of each installed in the work, including excavation, backfill, masonry or reinforced concrete, cast iron and ductile iron frames, grates steps, traps, stubs and all other required appurtenances.
  5. Y-Branches, "T's, Y-Connections and Slants
    The number of branches, connections of each type and size to be paid for under their respective items shall be the actual number of such connections installed in the work. When Y-branches, "T"s, or slants require extensions to clear the sides of the concrete bedding and encasement, but no risers are necessary, the cost of such extensions shall be included in the price bid for each Y-branch, "T" or slant. There will be no deduction for these specials from the length of pipe they are connected to.
  6. Risers
    The number of lineal feet of pipe riser to be paid for at the contract price, shall be the actual number of lineal feet of each size of vertical risers furnished, laid and connected, measured from the bell end of the branch or slant at the sewer, along the center line of the riser pipe, including any intermediate bends. The cost of concrete or masonry encasements and excavation and backfill shall be included in the contract unit price per lineal foot of riser.
  7. Lateral Connections
    Clay, cast iron, ABS solid wall, ABS composite wall, Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), and ductile iron pipe lateral connections will be paid for at their respective contract unit prices per lineal foot of each size of connections or risers to the end of the lateral connections installed from the branch connections or risers to the end of the lateral connection, regardless or kind of pipe or excavation procedure used, unless otherwise specified.

    The prices bid shall include furnishing, laying and connecting pipe; the excavation by boring and/or tunneling or jacking for the cast iron and ductile iron and open cut for clay or plastic pipe, concrete encasement where specified, sheeting, backfilling, replacement of all structures, utilities and paved surfaces and the furnishing of all labor, materials tools and equipment to complete the work as shown on the contract documents or ordered by the responsible agency. Lateral connections shown on the plans and details to be installed as six (6) inch clay pipe, six inch (6) ductile iron pipe, ABS solid wall pipe, ABS composite pipe, and PVC all of which will be paid for at the same contract unit price bid per lineal foot of lateral connection pipe whether installed by the open cut, boring, jacking or tunneling methods. Bends, increasers, and adapters will be included in the contract unit price bid.

    Any additional cost of installing the lateral connections above their respective contract unit prices bid per lineal foot of each size shall be included in the contract price bid for various sewer items and no additional compensation will be allowed therefore.
  8. Catch Basin and Inlet Connections
    The number of lineal feet of each class and size of catch basin or inlet pipe connections to be paid for at the contract unit price shall be the actual number or lineal feet of such pipe connections installed, measured from the center of the manhole to the center of catch basin or inlet, including concrete cradling or bedding for all catch basins and inlet connection pipe.

    The contract unit price shall include all costs as described under other parts of Section 5.214 B of these Specifications including the cost of concrete cradling or bedding for all catch basins and inlet connections pipe.
  9. Sheeting Ordered Left in Place
    The amount of sheeting in thousand feet board measure to be paid for at the contract unit price, shall be the amount actually left in place by the contractor upon written order of the responsible agency. In no case will capping, bracing or sheeting used in tunnel construction be paid for as sheeting.
  10. Timber Grillage
    The amount of timber grillage in thousand feet board measure to be paid for at the contract unit price, shall be the amount actually installed in trench by the contractor upon written order of the responsible agency. The contract unit price shall include all cost of furnishing, treating and placing of such timber grillage. In no case will capping, bracing or sheeting used in tunnel construction be paid for as grillage.
  11. Tile Underdrain
    The number of lineal feet of tile underdrain to be paid for at the contract unit price, shall be the number of lineal feet of such underdrain actually installed in the work upon written order of the responsible agency. The cost of additional excavation, furnishing and placing of stone screening and tile shall be included in the contract unit price.
  12. Additional Excavation
    The number of cubic yards of additional excavation to be paid for at the contract unit price shall be the amount of additional excavation required by reason of increase in depths of the excavation, over and above that shown on the plans or excavation made necessary that is not shown in the contract documents.

    The number of cubic yards of excavation to be paid for at the contract unit price shall be established by computing the actual volume of material unless otherwise specified.
  13. Additional Premium Backfill
    The number of cubic yards of additional premium backfill to be paid for at the contract prices shall be the actual amount of the respective materials installed in the work upon written order of the responsible agency, over and above that called for in the contract documents.
  14. Additional Structural Concrete
    The number of cubic yards of additional concrete to be paid for at the contract unit prices for plain and reinforced concrete respectively shall be the actual number of cubic yards installed in the work upon written order of the responsible agency, over and above that called for in the contract documents.

    The contract unit price shall include all cost of furnishing and placing of concrete and the form work. Reinforced concrete shall include the cost of steel in place.
  15. Additional Concrete Bedding, Cradling or Fill
    The number of cubic yards of additional concrete bedding, cradling or fill to be paid for at the contract unit price shall be the actual number of cubic yards of such concrete installed in the work upon written order of the responsible agency, exclusive of quantities which are specified to be paid for under other items of the work. The contract unit price shall include all cost of furnishing and placing of such concrete.
  16. Sewers in Tunnel Construction
    The number of lineal feet of sewers in tunnel construction to be paid for under their respective items shall be the actual number of lineal feet of each class and size, measured continuously along the center line of the sewer to the inside face of manholes, in shafts at the invert but not through them, and to the end of the tunnel construction wherever it is terminated.

    Such payment shall include the proper construction of sewers in tunnel, including excavation, its disposal, sheeting, bracing and lining of the tunnel excavation, cement grouting, crane rails or channels, sewer pipe, concrete backfill, plain or reinforced, or encasements, connecting and testing of the sewer, the replacement of all structures and pavements and the furnishing of all labor, materials, tools and equipment to complete the work, as shown in the contract documents or ordered in writing by the responsible agency. Such payment shall include all items of expense except such items as are stated in the contract documents to have separate payments.

    When sewer in tunnel construction ends at a manhole in a shaft, measurement shall be made to the nearest inside face of the wall of the manhole at the invert. At all points where sewers in tunnel construction change size, the measurement for each size shall be made to the nearest inside face of the wall of the manhole where the change is made.
  17. Manholes in Shaft Construction
    The number of manholes constructed in shafts of each type to be paid for under their respective items shall be the actual number of manholes in shafts of each type installed in the work, including the entire cost of the shafts, excavation, its disposal, sheeting, bracing ribs and lining of the shaft excavation, cement grouting, masonry, concrete, reinforced and plain, or encasements, backfill, connecting of the sewer, steps and/or elevator for the full depth of the shaft, stubs, cast iron or ductile iron frames, covers, steps, pipe drops, replacement of all structures and pavements and the furnishing of all labor, materials, tools and equipment to complete the work as specified and as shown in the contract documents. Such payment shall include all items of expense except such items as are stated in the contract documents to have separate payments.
  18. Sewers in Jacked or Bored Casing Pipe
    The number of lineal feet of sewers in jacked or bored casing pipe construction to be paid for under their respective items shall be the actual number of lineal feet of each class and size, measured continuously along the center line of the sewer to manholes in shafts, but not through them, and to the end of the jacked or bored casing pipe construction wherever it is terminated. Such payment shall include the proper construction of sewers in jacked or bored casing pipe, including excavation, its disposal, sheeting, bracing and casing of the excavation, cement grouting, crane rails or channels, sewer pipe, concrete backfill, plain or reinforced or encasements, connecting and testing of the sewer, the replacement of all structures and pavements and the furnishing of all labor, materials, tools and equipment to complete the work as specified and as shown in the contract documents or ordered in writing by the responsible agency. Such payment shall include all items of expense except such items as are stated in the contract documents to have separate payments.

    When a sewer in jacked or bored casing pipe construction ends at a manhole in a shaft, measurement shall be made to the nearest inside face of the wall of the manhole at the invert and will not be paid through the manhole inside diameter dimensions as it is a special structure. At all points where sewers in jacked or bored casing pipe construction change size, the measurement for each size shall be made to the nearest inside face of the wall of the manhole where the change is made.
  19. Jacked or Bored Sewers
    The number of lineal feet of jacked or bored sewer construction to be paid for under their respective items shall be the actual number of lineal feet of each class and size, measured continuously along the centerline of the sewer to the inside face of manholes, but not through them, and to the end of the jacked or bored sewer construction wherever it is terminated. In the event that the ends of the construction of this section are not visible, the lineal feet of such construction shall be verified before the backfill covers the ends.

    Such payment shall include the proper construction of jacked or bored sewers including excavation, its disposal, sheeting and bracing of the excavation, sewer pipe, connecting and testing of the sewer, the replacement of all structures and pavements and the furnishing of all labor, materials, tools and equipment to complete the work as shown in the contract documents or as ordered in writing by the responsible agency. Such payment shall include all items as are stated in the contract documents to have separate payments.